Karachai-Cherkessia adopted a program on the coordination of legislative, economic, environmental and legal activities with the Republics of Adygea and Kabardino-Balkaria in May 1998.
REPUBLIC OF KARACHAY-CHERKESSIA
Karachai-Cherkessia covers 14,100 square km and has 419,970 inhabitants, 42 percent Russian, 32 percent Karachai, 9 percent Cherkess and 7 percent Abaza (1989). Rural population: Karachai 67 percent, Cherkess 62 percent (1989).
The Karachai were driven into the highlands of the North Caucasus by Mongol tribes in the 13th century. Their territory was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828 but they continued to resist Russian rule throughout the 19th century.
Many Karachai emigrated to the Ottoman Empire in the 1860-70s to avoid Russian oppression. The Karachai Autonomous Okrug was established in 1920. The Cherkess are a subgroup of the Circassians. They had come under Russian control in the 1550s for protection against the Crimean Tatars and some Turkic tribes. Relations with Russia deteriorated when many Russians settled in the region. Following the end of the Ottoman claim to the Caucasus in 1829 and the resulting uprisings, Russia completed its occupation of the territory in 1864. Subsequently, many Cherkess were deported to Turkey at this time. The Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was first established in 1922.
The Karachai and Cherkess Autonomous Oblasts were merged to form the Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast in accordance with Stalin’s strategy of joining unrelated ethnic groups into administrative units to divide and conquer any resistance. The Oblasts repeatedly changed name and status during the frequent reshuffling of the peoples of the North Caucasus region. In 1943, the Karachai were deported to Central Asia but the Cherkess remained in the region. The Karachai were rehabilitated and permitted to return in 1957 and Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was re-established.
With 40 percent of the population being Russian and an administrative status as subordinated as the Russian Stavropol Province and the lowest possible level of autonomy until 1991. Russification is strong in Karachai-Cherkessia.
The fact that the 28,000 Abaza lack all the privileges of a titular nation, which the 40,000 Cherkess share in power with the much large group of Karachai, is a clear example of the arbitrary nature of the Soviet construction of double titular nationality republics and its consequences. Formal power-sharing notwithstanding, Russians have dominated political life in the new Karachai-Cherkess republic. This might change if the experience of neighboring Kabardino-Balkaria with a similar make up, can serve as a model for development.
The Karachai claim full rehabilitation after the deportations. More radical Karachai movements insist on territorial expansion and autonomy or even separate Karachai Republic, in accordance with the situation prior to the deportations. Cossacks have voiced claims of seceding from the republic to join the Kuban Cossacks in the neighboring Krasnodor district.
Still, a poll held in 1993 resulted in 78.6 percent wanting to preserve the Karachai-Cherkess republic as an undivided unit, so it seems that most people fear the consequences of claims made by the radical groups. The Karachai urban centre Karachaevsk, has been selected by the Confederation of Repressed Peoples as the location or their main office.
The territory proclaimed itself a republic in 1990. Special laws and agreements: The republic agreed to a division of responsibilities by a treaty with the Russian Federation in 1995.
Karachai-Cherkessia adopted a program on the coordination of legislative, economic, environmental and legal activities with the Republics of Adygea and Kabardino-Balkaria in May 1998.
1- The North Caucasus: Minorities at a Crossroads (Helen Krag and Larsh Funch)
2- Datebase of The Centre of Russian Studies (Norway)
Located in the North Caucasus Karachai-Circassian Republic, short Karachay-Cherkessia ( Russian Карачаево-Черкесская Республика / Karachaevo-Tscherkesskaja Respublika ; Karachay-Balkar Къарачай-Черкес Республика ; Kabardian Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ ; abasinisch Къарча-Черкес Республика ; Nogai Карашай-Шеркеш Республикасы ) has been a republic in the southern part of European Russia since 1991 .
- 1 geography
- 2 population, language and religion
- 3 story
- 4 Economy and Transport
- 5 Administrative structure
- 6 cities
- 7 web links
- 8 items of evidence
Panoramic view near Arkhyz
Karachay-Cherkessia lies on the northern slope of the Caucasus west and north of the Elbrus . At 80 percent, the largest part is in the mountains. The southern part of the republic is covered by the mountains of the Great Caucasus , which are up to 5000 m high , and the country becomes flatter in the north. The rivers Kuban , Great Selentschuk and Teberda have their source here in the central mountain range of the Great Caucasus . Countless other waterfalls and streams run down from the glaciers into the valleys.
Karachay-Cherkessia borders in the west with the Krasnodar Territory , in the north with the Stavropol Territory , in the east with the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria , in the south, along the central mountain ridge of the Greater Caucasus, with Abkhazia and Georgia . The climate is different depending on the altitude. The climatic conditions and the soil favor agriculture in the north, which turns into alpine farming in the south. The climate in the north is moderately warm. The winter is short, the summer warm, long and rich in precipitation. The mean temperature in January is −3.2 ° C, in July 20.6 ° C. In the republic there are around 130 high mountain lakes created by glaciers and the Teberda nature reserve .
Various mineral resources can be found in the republic: copper pebbles , metal ores, gold , silver , hard coal , granite and marble in different colors, raw materials for cement production and limestone .
Population, language and religion
Karachay-Cherkessia is a multinational republic. Members of over 80 nationalities live here. The population of the republic in the 2010 census was 477,859. The two ethnically unrelated peoples that give it their name are the Karachay , a Turkic people who first settled here, and the Circassian , a north-west Caucasian people. Together they make up just over half of the residents. Then came the Abasins , Nogaiians and finally, in the second half of the 19th century, Russian Cossacks. With 33.5% of the population, these form the largest minority. Smaller minorities are the Armenians (2002: 3,197 people) and the Tatars (2002: 2,021 people).
While the Karachay and Nogai languages belong to the Turkic languages , the Circassian languages ( Adygean and Kabardian ) and Abasinian are Caucasian languages . The languages of these five ethnic groups are official as “state languages” in the republic , but only Russian is the official language . The majority of the population is of Islamic faith, a minority belongs to the Russian Orthodox Church .
The numerically most significant ethnic groups in Karachay-Cherkessia
|Ethnic group||VZ 1926 1||VZ 1939 1||VZ 1959 1||VZ 1970||VZ 1979||VZ 1989||VZ 2002||VZ 2010 3|
| 1 Today’s territory
2 1926 13,496 Cabardians and 2,690 Circassians, 1970 31,190 Circassians, 735 Kabardians and 142 Adygenes, 1979 34,430 Circassians, 756 Cabardians and 220 Adygenes, 1989 40,241 Circassians and 1,030 Cabardians
3 3,499 people could not be assigned to any ethnic group. These people are probably distributed in the same proportion as the ethnically assigned residents.
Karachay-Cherkessia in a regional context
The territory of Karachay-Cherkessia belonged to since the end of the first millennium BC. To the state of the Alans . In the 16th to 18th centuries, part of this area was ruled by the Crimean Khanate . Since the first half of the 19th century, according to the Russian-Turkish peace treaty of Adrianople of 1829, the territory of today’s Karachay-Cherkessia has belonged to Russia. But even in the Caucasus War (1817–1864) , most of the Karachay, Circassian, Abazine and Nogai were fighting for their independence. On January 12, 1922, the Karachay and Circassian Autonomous Region within the Southeastern Region ( Krai ) was formed; on April 26, 1926, the area was divided into the Karachay Autonomous Region, the Circassian National District and two Rajons .
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Karachay Autonomous Region was liquidated on October 12, 1943 and the Karachay people were deported because of alleged collaboration with the German occupiers . The southern part of the Karachay region was annexed to Georgia , the larger northern part was united with the Stavropol region .
During and after the deportation, many Karachay people (according to some estimates 50%) were killed. The deportation of the Karachay , mainly to Siberia, lasted until 1957; at that time the republic did not exist. In 1957 the Karachayers were allowed to return and the republic with the former double name and the old borders was restored as the Autonomous Oblast ( AO ) in the holdings of the Russian SFSR . With the dissolution of the Soviet Union , it became a republic within Russia. Head of state was Vladimir Chubiyev , who had been chairman of the Soviet Republic since 1979 and head of government from 1990–1992 .
Compared with Chechnya, Dagestan and Kabardino-Balkaria, the republic of Karachay-Cherkessia was spared from prolonged violent political upheavals with the exception of the severe nationalist crises in 1994 and 1999/2000. After the end of the second crisis through the intervention of the Moscow central government, a comparatively plural political system was formed under the Karachay-Cherkess people’s assembly with a low influx of Islamist groups. The region is therefore now referred to in Russia as the “quiet republic” in the troubled North Caucasus. After the regional presidential elections in Karachay-Cherkessia in 1999, the division of this autonomous republic threatened. The Circassians and Abasins, inferior to the numerous Karachayers, want to rebuild their own autonomous republic, which had existed until 1957. President Vladimir Semjonow was head of state until 2003 , then Mustafa Batdyjew until 2008 . In August 2008 Boris Ebsejew was elected as the new President of Karachay-Cherkessia – according to the Russian Constitution on the proposal of President Dmitry Medvedev . As head of government, Alik Kardanow has led the republic since 2005 (already head of government 2000–2003). In February 2011, Rashid Temrezov was appointed the new head of state of Karachay-Cherkessia.
Economy and Transport
Ski slopes in Dombai
Industry and agriculture are equally strong in the republic. The republic can be divided into two areas, a more industrial north and a south that is more dominated by the primary sector . In the north, the chemical, mechanical engineering and consumer goods industries are mainly located around the capital Cherkessk. In the fertile northern steppe, maize , wheat , potatoes , sunflowers and sugar beets are grown , favored by the warm and humid climate . The wood processing industry and animal husbandry are more typical of the south. In addition, mining with hard coal production and the extraction of tin, zinc and copper ores form the economic basis in the south. Tourism and mountain sports are of great importance for the region . The resorts of Dombai , Archys and Teberda are well known . Archys is also known for the astrophysical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences . The many rivers and mineral springs, from which mineral water is partially obtained, are also an important industry.
The capital Cherkessk is connected to the North Caucasian Railway by a branch line . Most of the country is only accessible to traffic by roads.
The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia is divided into ten Rajons and two districts . A total of 5 urban and 82 rural communities are subordinate to the Rajons (status: 2010).
Administrative division of Karachay-Cherkessia
(inh / km²)
|More places||Number of
|I.||Karachayevsk||33,871||27||1254||29,305||4,566||Elbrusski , Dombai , Ordzhonikidsewski , Teberda||5||1|
(inh / km²)
|Administrative headquarters||More places||Number of
|4th||Karachay||24,836||3916||6th||4,533||20,303||Karachayevsk||Novy Karachay , Prawokubanski||2||13|
- ↑ ab number of the district / district (in alphabetical order of the names in Russian )
- ↑ ab Population figures from January 1, 2010 (calculation)
- ^Urban-type settlements
- ^Urban-type settlements or municipalities
- ↑ City does not belong to the Rajon, but forms an independent urban district; Population of the city not included in the calculation of population density
The capital Cherkessk is the only big city. Other significant settlements are Ust-Dscheguta , Karachayevsk and Zelenchukskaya . There are a total of four cities and seven urban-type settlements in Karachay-Cherkessia .
f1 Map with all coordinates: OSM | WikiMap
|City * / City settlement||Russian||City district / Rajon||Residents
(October 14, 2010)
|Dombai||Домбай||Karachayevsk District||657||43 ° 17 ‘ N , 41 ° 37’ E 43.29 41.624|
|Elbrusski||Эльбрусский||Karachayevsk District||320||43 ° 35 ‘ N , 42 ° 8’ E 43,577 42,135|
|Karachayevsk *||Карачаевск||Urban district||21,483||43 ° 46 ‘ N , 41 ° 54’ E 43,767 41.9|
|Mednogorski||Медногорский||Urupskaya||5,960||43 ° 55 ‘ N , 41 ° 11’ E 43,917 41,183|
|Novy Karachay||Новый Карачай||Karachayevsk||3,035||43 ° 49 ‘ N , 41 ° 54’ E 43,823 41,903|
|Ordzhonikidsewski||Орджоникидзевский||Karachayevsk District||3,039||43 ° 51 ‘ N , 41 ° 54’ E 43,843 41,897|
|Prawokubanski||Правокубанский||Karachayevsk||3,187||43 ° 55 ‘ N , 41 ° 53’ E 43,909 41,884|
|Teberda *||Теберда||Karachayevsk District||9,058||43 ° 27 ‘ N , 41 ° 45’ E 43.45 41.75|
|Cherkessk *||Черкесск||Urban district||129,069||44 ° 13 ‘ N , 42 ° 3’ E 44.217 42.05|
|Udarny||Ударный||Prikubanski||1,083||44 ° 21 ‘ N , 42 ° 30’ E 44,349 42,503|
|Ust-Jeguta *||Усть-Джегута||Ust-Dscheguta||30,566||44 ° 5 ‘ N , 41 ° 58’ E 44,083 41,967|
Commons : Karachay-Cherkessia – Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
- Official website of Karachay-Cherkessia
- Karachay-Cherkessia – Pictures
- English and Russian short messages from Kawkaski Usel from Karachay-Cherkessia
- ↑Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- ↑ abItogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- ↑Nacional’nyj sostav naselenija po sub “ektam Rossijskoj Federacii. (XLS) In: Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Rosstat, accessed on June 30, 2016 (Russian, ethnic composition of the population according to federal subjects , results of the 2010 census).
- ↑Constitution of the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia , Article 11 (1, 2) (Russian)
- ↑ Population of the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia 1926-2010 (in Russian) ( ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru )
- ^ Population of Russian territorial units by nationality 2010 (Russian; lines 486–498) gks.ru
- ^ Isabelle Kreindler: The Soviet Deportated Nationalities: A Summary and an Update . In: Soviet Studies . tape 38 , no. 3 , July 1986, p. 391 .
- ↑ Konstantin Kazenin: Село вместо города: как сохранили мир в Карачаево-Черкесии.In: carnegie.ru. February 3, 2016, Retrieved October 7, 2017 (Russian).
- ↑ Пост главы Карачаево-Черкесии занял Рашид Темрезов . ( ng.ru [accessed October 7, 2017]).
Cities with subject status: Moscow | Saint Petersburg | Sevastopol 1
Symbols of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia, a federal subject and republic in the.
Presentation on theme: “Symbols of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia, a federal subject and republic in the.”— Presentation transcript:
1 Symbols of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic
2 The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia, a federal subject and republic in the Russian Federation, was adopted on 26 July 1996. The flag of Karachay-Cherkessia, a federal subject and republic in the Russian Federation, was adopted on 26 July 1996. The flag consists of three stripes, from top to bottom in the colors light blue, green, and red. Blue symbolizes peace, kind motives and quiet. Green represents nature, fertility and wealth. Red is for the warmth and unity of the people of Karachay-Cherkessia. In the center of the green bar is a white circle containing the sun rising from behind a mountain, representing the landscape of the republic. The flag consists of three stripes, from top to bottom in the colors light blue, green, and red. Blue symbolizes peace, kind motives and quiet. Green represents nature, fertility and wealth. Red is for the warmth and unity of the people of Karachay-Cherkessia. In the center of the green bar is a white circle containing the sun rising from behind a mountain, representing the landscape of the republic.
3 The National Anthem of Karachay – Cherkessia Republic The National Anthem of Karachay- -Cherkessia, composed by A. Daurov on 9 April, 1998. ‘Lyrics Yu. Sozarukov The National Anthem of Karachay- -Cherkessia, composed by A. Daurov on 9 April, 1998. ‘Lyrics Yu. Sozarukov
4 The State Emblem of Karachay- Cherkessia Republic The State Emblem of Karachay-Cherkessia is a round heraldic form (shield). In the gold box on top of azure (blue, blue) ball (circle) Silver Mountain of two peaks (Mount Elbrus), inscribed on the edges, but in the end of the abstract and concave in the blues. The shield is surrounded by azure ring covered with a silver top with a gold border Bezant (Sun), and below the golden bowl (without stand), and framed at the edges of green bordered with gold branches of rhododendron with three silver flowers on each branch. The State Emblem of Karachay-Cherkessia is a round heraldic form (shield). In the gold box on top of azure (blue, blue) ball (circle) Silver Mountain of two peaks (Mount Elbrus), inscribed on the edges, but in the end of the abstract and concave in the blues. The shield is surrounded by azure ring covered with a silver top with a gold border Bezant (Sun), and below the golden bowl (without stand), and framed at the edges of green bordered with gold branches of rhododendron with three silver flowers on each branch. In the color image arms of Karachay-Cherkessia is as follows: In the color image arms of Karachay-Cherkessia is as follows: Yellow background – a symbol of solar Karachay- Cherkessia; Yellow background – a symbol of solar Karachay- Cherkessia; Elbrus – white means eternity, power, majesty, Elbrus is located in a blue circle; Elbrus – white means eternity, power, majesty, Elbrus is located in a blue circle; The blue color represents the eternal sky and clean water; The blue color represents the eternal sky and clean water; At the bottom of a gold cup, symbolizing hospitality At the bottom of a gold cup, symbolizing hospitality
5 The flag of Nogai Nogai symbol is the flag. A light blue background Nogai flag depicts a dark blue winged wolf.Wolf became a symbol of the Nogai people in 90-th of the last century Nogai symbol is the flag. A light blue background Nogai flag depicts a dark blue winged wolf.Wolf became a symbol of the Nogai people in 90-th of the last century
6 Nogai is proud of their winged symbol, sing it in songs and praise in poetry because Wolf – is a symbol of fearlessness. In any battle wolf fighting until victory or until death. Nogai is proud of their winged symbol, sing it in songs and praise in poetry because Wolf – is a symbol of fearlessness. In any battle wolf fighting until victory or until death.
7 Nogai hymn Another symbol of Nogai is its hymn. It is written by A. Sultanbekov. The hymn called «Nogai El» Another symbol of Nogai is its hymn. It is written by A. Sultanbekov. The hymn called «Nogai El»